The adoption process can be long and complex, so it’s worth knowing what you are getting yourself into, so you can be prepared.
Many families in South Africa consider adopting a child, either because they feel that they can provide a loving home for a child who needs it, or because they are unable to have their own children. Potential adoptive parents should be prepared for a time-consuming and occasionally frustrating process. Patience (and a lot of admin!) is required, but as adoptive parents attest, it’s all worthwhile when you welcome your new child into your home and family.
1. Screening and approvalAdoptions can only be processed by an accredited adoption social worker and all prospective adoptive parents must be screened before they can adopt. According to Robyn Wolfson Vorster, an adoption advocate, choosing the right social worker is a very important part of the adoption process. Options include working through an agency, a private social worker, Child Welfare or using a Department of Social Development social worker. Robyn suggests that you get a personal recommendation if possible, but that you can also use the National Adoption Coalition’s website to find the right social worker or agency in your province.
The screening process is extremely thorough, looking into the parents’ backgrounds, the stability of their relationship, their lifestyles, their income and expenditure, and their general readiness to provide a home for a child. Your social worker will carry out interviews with both parents (or one if a single parent is adopting) as well as a home visit. A police clearance and psychological evaluation are required, and adoptive parents will be checked against the Sexual Offences Register. Adoptive parents need to be 18 or older and South African citizens or permanent residents. However, the Children’s Act does not discriminate on the basis of age, marital status, race, culture or sexual orientation of the adoptive parents.
The parents will be briefed on what adoption involves. Issues under discussion would probably include cross-cultural or cross-racial adoption, talking to your child about his birth story and other practicalities of adoption at the outset and as the child grows older.
At the end of this process, the adoption team will review the application, findings and documentation to determine whether the prospective parents are suitable in terms of the Children’s Act.
How long it takes: This approval process takes between three and six months.
2. Matching a child with its adoptive parentsThe prospective parents state their preferences in terms of the child they would like to adopt – including gender, race and whether they are willing to adopt an older child, an abandoned child (as opposed to a child placed for adoption by their birth mother), or a child with special needs. They are then matched to a child who has been declared eligible for adoption.
There are two main avenues for a child to be declared adoptable. They are either placed for adoption by their birth parents, or, if the child’s birth parents are unknown (usually because the child was found abandoned), the social worker will attempt to trace their birth parents or extended family. If that process is unsuccessful, the child will be deemed to be “abandoned” in terms of the Children’s Act and will therefore be adoptable.
Birth parents who decide to place their child for adoption can only sign consent for adoption when the baby is born, which they have to do in court before a presiding officer. Both parents then have 60 days in which they can change their minds – so in most cases the child is kept in a place of safety until that period is up. Although this means that the adoptive parents lose out on bonding with their new baby in these early months, it protects both the baby and the adoptive parents from confusion and heartbreak if the birth parents withdraw their consent. Birth parents may specify what type of adoptive parents they would prefer for their child. If the biological father is not known or not present to consent to the adoption, the social worker will try to trace him to obtain consent or allow him the opportunity to raise his child. If he does not come forward in the specified 90 days period, the adoption can proceed without his consent.
If the child was found abandoned and their birth parents are unknown, the adoption social worker must try to trace them prior to declaring the child adoptable. An advert must be placed to find the parents. But if they do not come forward in the specified 90 days, the child can be declared abandoned and will be eligible for adoption.
How long it takes: The process of matching a child with its adoptive parents depends on the adoption criteria that the adoptive parents have laid out. It can take as little as a few weeks but can sometimes take years, especially if the parents are very specific about race and age. According to Robyn, many social workers recommend that parents see the process as a “paper pregnancy”, meaning that screening and matching will take on average about nine months.
3. Legally adopting your childOnce the matching is complete, the adoptive parents will receive what the adoption community refer to as “the call”, a phone call to say that the social worker has a child for them. The social worker will then present the adoptive parents with details about the child and allow them to make the choice about whether or not to proceed. Only once the parents have agreed, will they meet the child. Depending on the child’s age and circumstances, they may visit the child for a specified time period prior to obtaining legal permission to take custody of the child. The adoption must then be approved by the Department of Social Development in the province before a magistrate in the Children’s Court approves the adoption and grants an adoption order. This order both changes the surname of the child and declares that the child is now legally the adoptive parent’s child “as if born to them”. The final part of this process is for the adoption to be sent for registration.
How long does it take: Adoptive parents report that it can take up to a year or even longer for the Adoption Order to be issued and the adoption to be registered.
Once the Adoption Order has been issued, the parents go to Home Affairs to obtain a new birth certificate and ID number for their child and to have their child’s name officially changed (should they choose to do so).
How long does it take: The Department of Home Affairs has specific service levels agreements governing how long this process should take, but adoptive parents report that, again, this part of the process can take a frustratingly long time. Some parents have experienced a delay of two years or more before the new birth certificate is issued.
4. The costs involvedThe costs of adoption vary significantly depending on the different organisations that facilitate the adoption, and whether the adoption is facilitated by Child Welfare, by a government-subsidised agency or by a private social worker. According to Robyn, the Department of Social Development monitor the fees charged to ensure that they remain reasonable, commensurate with the service provided, and that birth parents are never finally compensated for placing their child for adoption, which is deemed to be trafficking. Child Welfare and other Non-Profit Agencies use a sliding scale based on what the adoptive parents earn and amend the cost of the adoption accordingly. Adoptions can therefore cost as little as a few thousand rand although they typically cost between R12 000 and R15 000 (not including the cost of the medical, police clearance and psychological examination which are usually extras)). Adoptions through a private social worker or adoption organisation can cost up to R60 000 (this amount is typically inclusive of all external screening and often includes counselling and support for the child’s birth mother too).
Sharon’s story“We opted to go the private adoption route because, although it is more expensive, it’s more streamlined than government-run adoptions, which are severely understaffed. With both of our adoptions, we went through all the screening phases, including psychometric testing and financial screening. Once approved, we had to wait for The Call – to let us know that we had been selected by a birth parent.
“Ava was with us from birth, but the law changed before Hannah was born, and we had to wait for the 60 days before she could be placed with us. We had a failed adoption as well before Hannah, of a little boy who was only with us for one day before his birth mother retracted consent. This was devastating and caused a huge amount of heartache and confusion for our family, especially with little Ava who didn’t understand why she only got to have a brother for one day.
“My biggest frustration has been dealing with the Department of Home Affairs. They do not have the capacity to deal with the complexities of processing adoptions. It took a year to finalise Hannah’s adoption order and name change, with many mistakes along the way. From speaking to other mothers in the adoption community, this is generally the biggest frustration for all adoptive parents.
My children are my greatest blessing
“Having said that, if I had to go back, I would still do it all over again. My children are my greatest blessing. I am grateful for this experience – it has taught me so much about unconditional love and blew away every stereotype I’d ever heard about birth parents. It tripled my levels of compassion and awareness. For a woman so barren, I am blessed with two beautiful daughters that challenge me every day.”
Changing their life and yoursWhile there is no doubt that the adoption process comes with its own unique challenges, as Sharon has explained, the rewards are enormous. Being aware of and willing to deal with the bureaucracy around the adoption process is crucial, but when your new baby looks into your eyes and smiles for the first time, it will all be worth it.
Luckily, adoption can open many doors for families to expand. Read more for everything you need to know.
Here’s everything you need to know.
Who can adopt?
Adoptive parents have to be South African citizens or permanent residents and aged 18 or older. There’s no age cap by law but some agencies, such as Johannesburg Child Welfare, cut off at 50.
“Applicants must also be realistic: if you’re adopting at a late age will you be able to manage a teenager when you’re 70?” says Eloise Loots, executive social worker at Procare – a national adoption agency – who adopted her son 17 years ago.
A person with a criminal record can adopt, depending on the nature of their crime. “For example, a person who has a drunk -driving charge three to five years before adopting can be considered if there’s no repeat offence and the social worker determines the person is rehabilitated,” says Ruth dos Santos of The Adoption Companion, a national adoption information service.
“There’s no minimum income but you should show you can provide adequately for a child,” says Pam Wilson, adoption supervisor at Johannesburg Child Welfare. Social workers check if the parent can at least meet the child’s basic needs. “They’ll use their professional discretion in these situations,” Wilson says.
“Both biological parents must consent to the child being adopted,” says Kirstin Stewart, senior social worker at Impilo Adoption Agency & Child Protection Services. They legally have 60 days to confirm their decision and the child stays at a place of safety during this time. Social workers will tell adoptive parents about their children only after the 60-day mark. The kids are placed with the new parents from about three months.
First find out as much as possible about adoption, advises Ruth dos Santos of The Adoption Companion, a national adoption in – formation service.
“Meet others who’ve adopted, join Facebook adoption groups and ask questions,” she says. Talking to others will also help you to find an agency or private social worker. “All adoptions must be screened by an accredited adoption social worker – this is stipulated by the Children’s Act,” says Pam Wilson, adoption supervisor at Johannesburg Child Welfare.
A private social worker can be found through the SA Association of Social Workers in Private Practice. Ask to see their accreditation.
“Once you’ve found one, don’t try to be screened by multiple agencies. It’s a waste of time and money. Good agencies network with other social workers around the country about children available for adoption,” Dos Santos says.
“It’s a child-centred approach – we’re not searching for babies for parents, we’re searching for suitable adoptive parents for adoptable children,” Stewart says.
The screening takes about six to nine months but depends on the individual case. First there’s orientation where the process is explained. Applicants then have interviews with their social worker. They’re told about the documents required such as psychological and medical assessments and character references from family and friends.
Couples have to undergo a relationship assessment with the social worker to ensure both are committed to the process. All applicants have to have police clearance as well as clearance from the National Child Protection Register and National Register of Sexual Offenders. The social worker talks to the applicants about their expectations – such as the child’s age, race, religion, health – but the more specific, the longer it might take to be matched to a child.
“For example, there’s a high demand and not many white or Indian children available for adoption,” Loots says. Wilson explains they match each child to an appropriate person or couple. Agencies run workshops to talk about preparation and challenges and the social worker arranges a home visit to make sure it’s a suitable environment to raise a child.
The applicants prepare a profile book that tells their story, which is shown to birth parents who’ve asked to be involved or to older adoptable children to prepare them for meeting prospective adoptive parents.
Approved applicants go on the Register of Adoptable Children and Prospective Adoptive Parents – a list of those approved to adopt and children ready to be adopted – managed by the department of social development. They’re now “paper pregnant”.
Baby goes home
After making the call some agencies allow parents to visit the child for a few days before he or she is legally placed in their care. Others who don’t have that system tell the new parents about the child and the routine before you can take him or her home.
The social worker files all the documents with the children’s court in your area and the adoptive parents go to court to sign the application form to have the adoption order granted. The order stipulates that the surname of the adoptive parents can be given to the child but this doesn’t officially happen until home affairs changes the child’s surname in the population register. The adoption order is sent to the registrar of adoptions in Pretoria to be registered and is posted to the parents.
When the adoption order is registered, the child is officially yours – in terms of the law it’s as if the child were born to you. You now apply to home affairs for the official name change and new birth certificate. This could take four to 18 months.
The fees cover administrative and legal work and professional services. They range from R12 500 to R28 000 and can even go up to R40 000 if the adoptive parents are paying the medical expenses of the birth mother. NGOs such as Child Welfare and Impilo use a sliding scale based on income to work out fees. “The costs are negotiable as social workers take into account the parents’ financial situation,” Loots says.